A simple loud speaker can made by hand by either printing or painting a conductive ink coil on any thin material. Alternatively a thin wire can be embed or glued to the materials surface to form the coil. When each termination of the coil is connected to the positive and negative of an amplifier and suspended over a magnet an electroacoustic transducer is formed.
Testing a modulating structure for the printed speaker:
Testing wire speaker on polymer film